We actually removed the carpet about 4 days after we moved in. I had a headache for those 4 days straight, and then we removed the carpet and it disappeared! We figured it was from all of the smoke that was stuck in it. Once it was gone I was fine.
We left the kitchen floor in for a bit longer, but then it had to be scraped off because of the glue.
We lived floorless for a long time. About a month probably, because we wanted all of the paint to be done before we put the floors in. It was dirty and unpleasant, and I have never been so happy to see real floors put down!